The Herbivory Variability Network has completed 654 surveys on 438 plant species from 133 plant families, which is about 29% of all extant vascular plant families. These figures and tables update as new data are entered into our database, so check back often!

We have a three-scaled sampling approach:

  1. Sampling one plant species from as many plant families as possible
  2. Sampling as many species (and tribes and genera) as possible from five focal families (Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae)
  3. Sampling as many sites as possible for three focal species (Taraxacum officinale, Plantago lanceolata, and Plantago major).

The goal of this stratified sampling plan is to avoid potential biases in geographic and/or taxonomic coverage, as well as to permit robust exploration of factors that shape patterns in herbivory.

Below we show the current status of our sampling for each of the three scales of sampling, our overall geographic extent, and finally our current plant species list. This information is here to share our progress and help collaborators pick sites and species to survey.


Sampling across plant families

The distribution of currently sampled plant families (purple) across the phylogeny of all extant vascular plant families. Figure made by HerbVar collaborator [Marjorie Weber](http://www.theweberlab.com) with mega-tree from Jin et al. 2019.

The distribution of currently sampled plant families (purple) across the phylogeny of all extant vascular plant families. Figure made by HerbVar collaborator Marjorie Weber with mega-tree from Jin et al. 2019.


The geographic distribution of our completed surveys. Each hexagon shows the number of herbivory surveys that we have completed in that area.

The geographic distribution of our completed surveys. Each hexagon shows the number of herbivory surveys that we have completed in that area.


Sampling within plant families

Number of completed surveys per plant family. Our five focal families are in yellow (Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae).

Number of completed surveys per plant family. Our five focal families are in yellow (Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae).


Sampling within focal species

We have three focal species that we are aiming to sampling across the broadest possible geographic extent and across broad environmental gradients. These are Taraxacum officinale, Plantago major, and Plantago lanceolata. This is the newest part of our sampling effort, so we are just starting to collect these data.


Species list

Our current species list with the number of surveys completed for each species.

Plant family Plant species No. surveys
Acanthaceae Ruellia nudiflora 3
Acanthaceae Ruellia tuberosa 1
Adoxaceae Viburnum lantana 1
Alismataceae Sagittaria cuneata 1
Alstroemeriaceae Alstroemeria aurea 1
Alstroemeriaceae Bomarea chiriquina 1
Altingiaceae Liquidambar styraciflua 2
Amaranthaceae Alternantera brasiliana 1
Amaranthaceae Alternanthera brasiliana 1
Amaranthaceae Alternanthera sessilis 1
Amaranthaceae Chenopodium album 2
Amaryllidaceae Zephyranthes cisandina 1
Anacardiaceae Rhus copallinum 1
Anacardiaceae Schinus patagonicus 1
Annonaceae Polyanthia longifolia 1
Apiaceae Heracleum mantegazzianum 1
Apiaceae Heracleum maximum 1
Apiaceae Heracleum nepalense 1
Apiaceae Heracleum sphondylium 1
Apiaceae Myrrhidendron donnell-smithii 1
Apiaceae Pastinaca sativa 2
Apiaceae Sanicula liberta 1
Apiaceae Zizia aurea 1
Apocynaceae Apocynum androsaemifolium 1
Apocynaceae Apocynum cannabinum 2
Apocynaceae Asclepias cryptoceras 1
Apocynaceae Asclepias curassavica 1
Apocynaceae Asclepias incarnata 1
Apocynaceae Asclepias speciosa 1
Apocynaceae Asclepias syriaca 4
Apocynaceae Asclepias tuberosa 1
Apocynaceae Calotropis procera 2
Apocynaceae Gomphocarpus fructicosus 1
Apocynaceae Landolphia dulcis 1
Apocynaceae Vincetoxicum hirundinaria 1
Aquifoliaceae Ilex aquifolium 1
Araceae Amorphophallus commutatus 1
Araceae Arisaema triphyllum 1
Araliaceae Aralia nudicaulis 2
Araliaceae Hydrocotyle maritima 1
Araliaceae Panax trifolius 1
Arecaceae Chamaedorea woodsoniana 1
Arecaceae Roystonea regia 1
Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia chilensis 1
Aristolochiaceae Asarum canadense 1
Asparagaceae Cordyline australis 1
Asparagaceae Hesperoyucca whipplei 1
Asparagaceae Maianthemum canadense 1
Asparagaceae Maianthemum paniculatum 1
Asparagaceae Polygonatum biflorum 1
Asphodelaceae Pasithea caerulea 1
Asphodelaceae Phormium tenax 1
Aspleniaceae Asplenium claussenii 1
Aspleniaceae Asplenium platyneuron 1
Asteraceae Achillea ptarmica 1
Asteraceae Ageratina altissima 2
Asteraceae Ageratum fastigiatum 1
Asteraceae Anthemis galiale 1
Asteraceae Arctium minus 2
Asteraceae Artemisia mongolica 1
Asteraceae Artemisia tridentata 2
Asteraceae Baccharis dracunculifolia 1
Asteraceae Baccharis serrulata 1
Asteraceae Balsamorhiza sagittata 3
Asteraceae Bidens frondosa 1
Asteraceae Bidens reptans 1
Asteraceae Celmisia discolor 1
Asteraceae Celmisia spectabilis 1
Asteraceae Chromolaena odorata 2
Asteraceae Cirsium arvense 1
Asteraceae Conoclinium coelestinum 1
Asteraceae Echinacea purpurea 2
Asteraceae Emilia praetermissa 1
Asteraceae Encelia canescens 1
Asteraceae Erigeron glacialis 1
Asteraceae Erigeron strigosus 1
Asteraceae Eurybia macrophylla 1
Asteraceae Flourensia thurifera 1
Asteraceae Grindelia squarrosa 3
Asteraceae Helianthella quinquenervis 3
Asteraceae Helianthus annuus 2
Asteraceae Heterotheca Subaxillaris 1
Asteraceae Hieracium pilosella 3
Asteraceae Hypochaeris chillensis 1
Asteraceae Hypochaeris radicata 2
Asteraceae Ixeridium dentatum 1
Asteraceae Jacobaea vulgaris 1
Asteraceae Jessea multivenia 1
Asteraceae Jungia ferruginea 1
Asteraceae Kalimeris integrifolia 1
Asteraceae Lactuca sibirica 1
Asteraceae Leucanthemum vulgare 1
Asteraceae Maianthemum racemosum 1
Asteraceae Melanthera scandens 1
Asteraceae Munnozia pinnatipartita 1
Asteraceae Proustia cuneifolia 1
Asteraceae Pulicaria dysenterica 1
Asteraceae Raoulia eximia 1
Asteraceae Ratibida pinnata 1
Asteraceae Rudbeckia hirta 1
Asteraceae Rudbeckia laciniata 1
Asteraceae Rudbeckia triloba 1
Asteraceae Senecio brunonianus 1
Asteraceae Senecio elegans 1
Asteraceae Senecio madagascariensis 1
Asteraceae Solidago altissima 6
Asteraceae Solidago canadensis/altissima 1
Asteraceae Solidago missouriensis 1
Asteraceae Solidago speciosa 1
Asteraceae Symphyotrichum novae-angliae 1
Asteraceae Symphyotrichum novi-belgii 1
Asteraceae Taraxacum mongolicum 1
Asteraceae Taraxacum officinale 34
Asteraceae Tragopogon dubius 1
Asteraceae Tussilago farfara 1
Asteraceae Verbesina encelioides 1
Asteraceae Vernonia baldwinii 1
Asteraceae Vernonia gigantea 1
Asteraceae Wyethia mollis 2
Athyriaceae Diplazium cristatum 1
Balsaminaceae Impatiens capensis 1
Balsaminaceae Impatiens parviflora 2
Berberidaceae Berberis linearifolia 1
Berberidaceae Podophyllum peltatum 2
Betulaceae Alnus acuminata 1
Betulaceae Alnus hirsuta 1
Betulaceae Betula alleghaniensis 1
Betulaceae Betula pubescens 1
Betulaceae Carpinus caroliniana 1
Bignoniaceae Catalpa speciosa 1
Bignoniaceae Handroanthus ochraceus 1
Blechnaceae Blechnum occidentale 1
Blechnaceae Lomaridium plumieri 1
Blechnaceae Neoblechnum brasiliense 1
Boraginaceae Amsinckia menziesii 1
Boraginaceae Cryptantha cinerea 1
Boraginaceae Eriodictyon californica 1
Boraginaceae Heliotropium indicum 1
Boraginaceae Pentaglottis sempervirens 1
Brassicaceae Alliaria petiolata 1
Brassicaceae Arabidopsis halleri 4
Brassicaceae Brassica oleracea 1
Brassicaceae Diplotaxis erucoides 1
Brassicaceae Draba asterophora 1
Brassicaceae Raphanus raphanistrum 1
Bromeliaceae Vriesea platynema 1
Buxaceae Buxus sempervirens 1
Cactaceae Opuntia cespitosa 1
Cactaceae Opuntia engelmanii 1
Cactaceae Tacinga palmadora 1
Calophyllaceae Kielmeyera petiolaris 1
Campanulaceae Campanula persicifolia 1
Campanulaceae Lobelia polyphylla 1
Cannaceae Canna indica 1
Capparaceae Capparis erythrocarpos 1
Caprifoliaceae Lomelosia prolifera 1
Caprifoliaceae Symphoricarpos albus 1
Caryophyllaceae Stellaria roughii 1
Celastraceae Maytenus boaria 1
Combretaceae Combretum hispidium 1
Commelinaceae Tradescantia fluminensis 1
Commelinaceae Tradescantia ohiensis 1
Commelinaceae Tradescantia zanonia 1
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas 1
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea nil 1
Cornaceae Cornus disciflora 1
Cornaceae Cornus florida 1
Crassulaceae Dudleya farinosa 1
Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita foetidissima 1
Cyatheaceae Alsophila setosa 1
Cyperaceae Carex leucochlora 1
Cyperaceae Cyperus esculentus 1
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea racemosa 1
Dipterocarpaceae Shorea robusta 1
Doryanthaceae Doryanthes excelsa 1
Droseraceae Drosera rotundifolia 1
Dryopteridaceae Ctenitis submarginalis 1
Elaeocarpaceae Aristotelia chilensis 1
Ericaceae Arctostaphylos pungens 1
Ericaceae Chimaphila umbellata 1
Euphorbiaceae Bridelia crenulata 1
Euphorbiaceae Croton capitatus 1
Euphorbiaceae Croton sp 1
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia corollata 1
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia esula 1
Euphorbiaceae Microstachys serrulata 1
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis 1
Fabaceae Acacia dealbata 1
Fabaceae Acacia implexa 1
Fabaceae Acacia longifolia 1
Fabaceae Acacia suaveolens 1
Fabaceae Adesmia boronioides 1
Fabaceae Aotus genistoides 1
Fabaceae Astragalus alpinus 2
Fabaceae Cercis canadensis 1
Fabaceae Chamaecrista fasciculata 1
Fabaceae Crotalaria juncea 1
Fabaceae Crotalaria pallida 1
Fabaceae Crotalaria vitelina 1
Fabaceae Dalbergia miscolobium 1
Fabaceae Desmodium gangeticum 1
Fabaceae Desmodium glutinosum 1
Fabaceae Desmodium incanum 1
Fabaceae Desmodium podocarpum 1
Fabaceae Desmodium procumbens 1
Fabaceae Glycine max 1
Fabaceae Indigofera hirsuta 1
Fabaceae Lathyrus quinquenervius 1
Fabaceae Latrobea pinnacula 1
Fabaceae Lespedeza pilosa 1
Fabaceae Lupinus arboreus 1
Fabaceae Lupinus argenteus 1
Fabaceae Lupinus perennis 1
Fabaceae Lupinus pilosus 1
Fabaceae Lupinus polyphyllus 1
Fabaceae Lupinus sericeus 2
Fabaceae Medicago polymorpha 1
Fabaceae Melilotus albus 1
Fabaceae Mimosa tenuiflora 1
Fabaceae Montigena novae-zelandiae 1
Fabaceae Phaseolus lunatus 1
Fabaceae Prosopis velutina 1
Fabaceae Senna cumingii 1
Fabaceae Senna occidentalis 1
Fabaceae Trifolium repens 2
Fabaceae Vicia sativa 1
Fabaceae Vicia sepium 1
Fabaceae Wisteria floribunda 1
Fagaceae Castanea sativa 6
Fagaceae Fagus grandifolia 1
Fagaceae Fagus sylvatica 2
Fagaceae Quercus alba 2
Fagaceae Quercus garryana 1
Fagaceae Quercus insignis 1
Fagaceae Quercus robur 2
Fouquieriaceae Fouquieria splendens 1
Gentianaceae Frasera speciosa 1
Gentianaceae Gentianella bellidifolia 1
Geraniaceae Erodium crassifolium 1
Geraniaceae Geranium palustre 1
Geraniaceae Geranium pratense 1
Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo biloba 1
Griseliniaceae Griselinea littoralis 1
Gunneraceae Gunnera tinctoria 2
Heliconiaceae Heliconia schiedeana 1
Hypericaceae Hypericum maculatum 4
Iridaceae Iris atrofusca 1
Iridaceae Iris atropurpurea 2
Iridaceae Iris haynei 1
Iridaceae Iris petrana 1
Iridaceae Sisyrinchium tinctorium 1
Juglandaceae Juglans nigra 1
Lamiaceae Lycopus uniflorus 1
Lamiaceae Monarda fistulosa 3
Lamiaceae Monarda punctata 1
Lamiaceae Salvia pratensis 1
Lamiaceae Thymus vulgaris 1
Lauraceae Laurus nobilis 1
Lauraceae Nectandra lineata 1
Lauraceae Sassafras albidum 2
Liliaceae Clintonia borealis 1
Loasaceae Loasa insons 1
Loasaceae Mentzelia laevicaulis 1
Lythraceae Diplusodon orbicularis 1
Lythraceae Lythrum salicaria 1
Magnoliaceae Liriodendron tulipifera 2
Malpighiaceae Byrsonima intermedia 1
Malpighiaceae Byrsonima verbascifolia 1
Malvaceae Abutilon theophrasti 1
Malvaceae Alcea rosea 1
Malvaceae Brachychiton populneus 1
Malvaceae Gossypium hirsutum 3
Malvaceae Hampea appendiculata 1
Malvaceae Melhania ovata 1
Malvaceae Plagianthus regius 1
Malvaceae Sida acuta 1
Malvaceae Sphaeralcea coccinea 1
Malvaceae Talipariti pernambucensis 1
Malvaceae Tilia americana 1
Malvaceae Waltheria indica 3
Marattiaceae Danaea geniculata 1
Marsileaceae Marsilea minuta 1
Melastomataceae Clidemia heterophylla 1
Melastomataceae Heterotis rotundifolia 1
Melastomataceae Miconia albicans 1
Melastomataceae Pleroma candolleanum 1
Melastomataceae Tibouchina clavate 1
Melastomataceae Trembleya laniflora 1
Meliaceae Azadirachta indica 1
Meliaceae Swietenia macrothylla 1
Menispermaceae Triclisia gilletii 1
Menyanthaceae Nephrophyllidium crista-galli 1
Montiaceae Cistanthe sp 1
Moraceae Morus alba 1
Myricaceae Myrica faya 1
Nothofagaceae Nothofagus dombeyi 1
Nyctaginaceae Abronia latifolia 1
Nymphaeaceae Brasenia schreberi 1
Ochnaceae Ouratea spectabilis 1
Oleaceae Fraxinus nigra 1
Oleaceae Olea europa 1
Onagraceae Chamaenerion angustifolium 1
Onagraceae Circaea canadensis 1
Onagraceae Circaea lutetiana 1
Onagraceae Oenothera biennis 1
Onocleaceae Onoclea sensibilis 1
Orchidaceae Cypripedium acaule 1
Orchidaceae Gavilea lutea 1
Orchidaceae Goodyera ovatilabia 1
Orchidaceae Platanthera clavellata 1
Orobanchaceae Castilleja sulphurea 1
Orobanchaceae Melampyrum pratense 1
Oxalidaceae Oxalis stricta 1
Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana 1
Papaveraceae Bocconia frutescens 1
Papaveraceae Eschscholzia californica 1
Papaveraceae Sanguinaria canadensis 2
Passifloraceae Passiflora apetala 1
Passifloraceae Passiflora incarnata 2
Passifloraceae Passiflora lutea 2
Passifloraceae Turnera subulata 1
Paulowniaceae Paulownia tomentosa 1
Phrymaceae Mimulus guttatus 1
Phrymaceae Mimulus verbanaceus 1
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana 1
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca rivinoides 1
Pinaceae Picea rubens 1
Pinaceae Pinus contorta 1
Piperaceae Piper auritum 1
Piperaceae Piper kelleyi 1
Piperaceae Piper umbellatum 1
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum tenuifolium 1
Plantaginaceae Hebe salicifolia 1
Plantaginaceae Plantago asiatica 2
Plantaginaceae Plantago depressa 1
Plantaginaceae Plantago hispidula 1
Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata 41
Plantaginaceae Plantago major 12
Plantaginaceae Veronica officinalis 7
Poaceae Ammophila breviligulata 1
Poaceae Andropogon virginicus 1
Poaceae Bouteloua gracilis 1
Poaceae Elymus hystrix 1
Poaceae Imperata cylindrica 1
Poaceae Pascopyrum smithii 1
Poaceae Pleioblastus chino 1
Poaceae Zea mays 2
Poaceae Zoysia japonica 1
Polygonaceae Bistorta vivipara 7
Polygonaceae Coccoloba cereifera 2
Polygonaceae Coccoloba uvifera 2
Polygonaceae Persicaria virginiana 1
Polygonaceae Rumex acetosa 1
Polygonaceae Rumex crispus 2
Polygonaceae Rumex japonicus 4
Polygonaceae Rumex obtusifolius 3
Polygonaceae Rumex sanguineus 1
Polypodiaceae Campyloneurum nitidum 1
Portulacaceae Claytonia virginica 1
Primulaceae Lysimachia borealis 1
Primulaceae Myrsine guianensis 1
Proteaceae Persoonia micranthera 1
Pteridaceae Adiantum pedatum 1
Ranunculaceae Anemone coronaria 3
Ranunculaceae Enemion biternatum 1
Ranunculaceae Hepatica nobilis 1
Ranunculaceae Ranunculus haastii 1
Ranunculaceae Ranunculus paucifolius 1
Ranunculaceae Thalictrum alpinum 4
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus joazeiro 1
Rosaceae Agrimonia eupatoria 1
Rosaceae Fragaria vesca 1
Rosaceae Potentilla erecta 7
Rosaceae Potentilla gracilis 1
Rosaceae Potentilla recta 1
Rosaceae Potentilla simplex 1
Rosaceae Rubus chamaemorus 1
Rosaceae Rubus fruticosus 1
Rosaceae Sibbaldia procumbens 3
Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentalis 1
Rubiaceae Coffea arabica 1
Rubiaceae Coprosma lucida 1
Rubiaceae Cordiera elliptica 1
Rubiaceae Galium album 1
Rubiaceae Mitchella repens 1
Rubiaceae Morinda pubescens 1
Rubiaceae Palicourea padifolia 1
Rubiaceae Palicourea rigida 1
Rubiaceae Psychotria aubletiana 1
Rutaceae Erythrochiton brasiliensis 1
Rutaceae Ptelea trifoliata 1
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum melanostictum 1
Salicaceae Salix herbacea 1
Santalaceae Viscum album 1
Sapindaceae Acer campestre 1
Sapindaceae Acer platanoides 1
Sapindaceae Acer rubrum 1
Sapindaceae Acer saccharum 1
Sapindaceae Aesculus parviflora 1
Sapotaceae Madhuca longifolia 1
Sarraceniaceae Sarracenia purpurea 2
Saxifragaceae Mitella diphylla 1
Scrophulariaceae Digitalis purpurea 1
Scrophulariaceae Verbascum lychnitis 1
Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus 1
Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima 1
Smilacaceae Smilax hispida 1
Smilacaceae Smilax sp 1
Solanaceae Datura wrightii 1
Solanaceae Nicotiana attenuata 1
Solanaceae Physalis heterophylla 1
Solanaceae Physalis longifolia 1
Solanaceae Salpichroa origanifolia 1
Solanaceae Solanum carolinense 4
Solanaceae Solanum cinereum 1
Solanaceae Solanum donianum 3
Solanaceae Solanum elaeagnifolium 2
Solanaceae Solanum incanum 1
Solanaceae Solanum lycocarpum 1
Solanaceae Solanum nigrum 1
Solanaceae Solanum ptychanthum 1
Solanaceae Solanum sp 1
Solanaceae Solanum tridynamum 3
Thelypteridaceae Meniscium macrophyllum 1
Typhaceae Typha latifolia 1
Urticaceae Cecropia pachystachya 1
Urticaceae Pilea pumila 1
Urticaceae Pilea vulcanica 1
Urticaceae Pouzolzia guineensis 2
Urticaceae Urera baccifera 1
Urticaceae Urtica dioica 3
Valerianaceae Valeriana carnosa 1
Velloziaceae Vellozia variabilis 1
Verbenaceae Lantana camara 3
Verbenaceae Verbena hastata 1
Violaceae Viola pubescens 1
Vitaceae Cissus vitiginea 1
Zygophyllaceae Zygophyllum dumosum 1